Prevalence of pneumonia and risk factors of pneumonia mortality among children under five years

Prevalence of pneumonia and risk factors of pneumonia mortality among children under five years.

Background

Pneumonia remains the foremost cause of death in children under 5 years of age especially in sub-Saharan Africa killing nearly 1 million annually.

Aim

Identify pneumonia prevalence, mortality rate and associated factors among children under five admitted to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana.

Methods

Using a prospective cross-sectional study method, a consecutive sample of 157 children under 5 admitted to the KATH for pneumonia from June to August 2016 was selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from their caregivers and secondary data from the patient record using a structured data extraction form. Continuous and categorical variables were described and chi-square test employed to determine the associated factors of pneumonia mortality. Multivariate logistics regression model was used to test for the strength of the association to unearth the risk factors of pneumonia mortality.

Results

The study found a prevalence of pneumonia of 18.40% with a mortality rate of 12.74%. Pneumonia mortality was found to be associated with maternal education (p<0.001), occupation (p=0.01), income (p=0.02), pneumonia severity (p<0.001) and number of rooms occupied by a household (p=0.01). In multivariate regression, severe pneumonia increased the odds of pneumonia mortality (OR=18.23, 95% CI= 4.37-76.10, p<0.001). However, maternal education showed reduced likelihood of pneumonia mortality (OR=0.59, 95% CI= 0.36-0.97, p=0.039). Conclusion Pneumonia places a high burden on the health of children under five years admitted to KATH. Health workers need to sensitize caregivers on the signs and symptoms of pneumonia to aid early detection and reporting which could reduce mortality.

Prevalence of pneumonia and risk factors of pneumonia mortality among children under five years.

Prevalence of pneumonia and risk factors of pneumonia mortality among children under five years.

Background

Pneumonia remains the foremost cause of death in children under 5 years of age especially in sub-Saharan Africa killing nearly 1 million annually.

Aim

Identify pneumonia prevalence, mortality rate and associated factors among children under five admitted to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana.

Methods

Using a prospective cross-sectional study method, a consecutive sample of 157 children under 5 admitted to the KATH for pneumonia from June to August 2016 was selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from their caregivers and secondary data from the patient record using a structured data extraction form. Continuous and categorical variables were described and chi-square test employed to determine the associated factors of pneumonia mortality. Multivariate logistics regression model was used to test for the strength of the association to unearth the risk factors of pneumonia mortality.

Results

The study found a prevalence of pneumonia of 18.40% with a mortality rate of 12.74%. Pneumonia mortality was found to be associated with maternal education (p<0.001), occupation (p=0.01), income (p=0.02), pneumonia severity (p<0.001) and number of rooms occupied by a household (p=0.01). In multivariate regression, severe pneumonia increased the odds of pneumonia mortality (OR=18.23, 95% CI= 4.37-76.10, p<0.001). However, maternal education showed reduced likelihood of pneumonia mortality (OR=0.59, 95% CI= 0.36-0.97, p=0.039). Conclusion Pneumonia places a high burden on the health of children under five years admitted to KATH. Health workers need to sensitize caregivers on the signs and symptoms of pneumonia to aid early detection and reporting which could reduce mortality.

Prevalence and characteristics of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) in Northern Ghana: a two year retrospective descriptive study

Prevalence and characteristics of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) in Northern Ghana: a two year retrospective descriptive study

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of clubfoot in the Northern Region, one of the most deprived regions of Ghana.

Method: Parameters of interest included sex distribution, laterality, types of clubfoot, annual trends and prevalence rate. Data was collected in the sole clubfoot clinic for the region from January 2015 to December 2016. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data was conducted using SPSS version 16.

Result: A total of 112 cases were recorded, resulting in a prevalence rate of 0.9 per 1000 live births. The highest number of cases for both years was recorded in January. Twice the number of males were affected as females and bilateral clubfoot formed 65.5% of case presentations while idiopathic clubfoot made up 67.9% of total clubfoot types. Almost same numbers of left (n=19) feet were affected as right (n=20) in unilateral clubfoot.

Conclusions: The phenotypic characteristics were similar to findings in other parts of Ghana, Africa and the world although the prevalence rate was lower than expected. Future investigations into associated risk factors and the influencers of the phenotypic and annual trends are therefore warranted.

A 10-Year retrospective review of renal cases seen in a Tertiary Hospital in West Africa.

A 10-Year retrospective review of renal cases seen in a Tertiary Hospital in West Africa.

Introduction

Renal diseases commonly present to the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). There has not been a comprehensive analysis of the number of renal cases managed. We set out to analyze comprehensively the renal cases seen at KATH to describe the trends a decade.

Methods

A retrospective study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2016. We collected secondary data from the records on the wards, outpatient clinics and hemodialysis unit from the KATH annual reports. Trends in renal cases were then plotted.

Results

Renal outpatient clinics started in 2007. There were an average of 65,273 medical out patients seen yearly with renal conditions accounting for 5,397 (8.3%). Renal clinic patients increased by 271% from 710 in 2007 to 1927 in 2016.

The average yearly medical admission was 6,880 patients of which renal admissions accounted for 276 (4.0%). The average position of renal admissions was 6th (range 2nd-10th) of total medical admissions. The average annual mortality rate of renal admissions was 32.7%. The average mortality of general medical cases was 23.8% annually.

Hemodialysis services commenced in 2006. Patients on haemodialysis have increased by 50 times from 8 in 2006 to 407 in 2016. Hemodialysis session also increased by 38.8 times from 59 in 2006 to 2350 in 2016. The average number of patients on hemodialysis per year was 211.5.

Conclusion

Renal disease is a common condition in KATH associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A concerted effort is needed to enhance the diagnosis and management of renal diseases in Ghana.

Managing urine retention among children in Kumasi

Purpose

To describe our experience in the management of children with urine retention at the Konfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi

Methods

From 1st April to 30th November, 2012, data on children presenting with urine retention at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi was obtained. The data collected was entered, cleaned, validated and analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for Windows.

Results

Thirteen male children presented with urine retention during the study period. Their mean age was 5.9±5.1 (range1-14) years. The causes of urine retention were; posterior urethral valves 9(69.2%), neurological disorder 2(15.4%) and one each of phimosis and bladder calculus.

Conclusion

Posterior urethral valve was the main cause of urine retention among children who presented to urologist in Kumasi. Immediate relief of urine retention was varied requiring the use of urethral catheterization, suprapubic cystostomy, or vesicostomy. Definitive management was varied and tailored to the underlying cause.

Human Rabies in Kumasi: A Growing Public Health Concern

Rabies is a source of concern for Public Health Officials. It is known to have a case fatality of 100% worldwide. Of all cases reported, 95% occurred in Africa and Asia put together. The Ghana Office of Rabies in West Africa (RIWA) suggests that the numbers in Ghana maybe underreported due to ineffective surveillance systems. The study therefore reviewed medical records of all suspected rabies cases and case-based forms filed by Disease Control Officers to the Disease Surveillance Unit of the Ghana Health Service. Twenty-one cases of suspected human rabies cases were reported in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) from January 2013 to January 2015. A little of 50% of cases were males. A third of the cases did not receive PEP though they reported to a health facility. On the average cases were reported 2 months after the exposure. This study also reported 100% fatality with 60% dying within 24 hours post admission. It is recommended that there is effort aimed at Public Education and also to control stray dogs. Governments are also admonished to make available PEPs at health facilities.

Investigating epidemic prone diseases: knowledge and practices of clinical health staff in Ghana

BACKGROUND: Early detection and prompt reporting of epidemic prone diseases (EPD’s) has been cited as the pivot in the surveillance and control of outbreaks. The contributions by clinical staff towards early detections is highly relevant, however the level of knowledge and attitude towards reporting remains unknown. The study was therefore conducted to examine the knowledge and reporting standards of clinical staff towards outbreak investigations. METHODS: A cross sectional study design was conducted in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), tertiary hospital in Kumasi-Ghana between February and May 2013. Stratified, simple random sampling was used to select 111 participants and a structured questionnaire used as the instrument for data collection. RESULTS: The mean age was 31.1(±6.8) years. About 87% (n=95/111) indicated knowledge of EPD’s. More than half of these, 62.1% (n=59/95) had no idea of the definition and 30.5% (n=29/95) gave correct definition of EPD’s but had limited knowledge on the laboratory specimen required for its investigation. About 48% (n=46/95) of the respondents indicated that they would consult the nurse-in-charge of the ward instead of the public health official when an outbreak is suspected. CONCLUSION: The knowledge level of EPD’s was generally low but was found to be high with meningitis and poliomyelitis. The study has shown that the procedure for reporting EPD’s remains a challenge in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. A protocol on outbreak investigation procedures would address the gaps identified in the study.