Prevalence of pneumonia and risk factors of pneumonia mortality among children under five years

Prevalence of pneumonia and risk factors of pneumonia mortality among children under five years.

Background

Pneumonia remains the foremost cause of death in children under 5 years of age especially in sub-Saharan Africa killing nearly 1 million annually.

Aim

Identify pneumonia prevalence, mortality rate and associated factors among children under five admitted to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana.

Methods

Using a prospective cross-sectional study method, a consecutive sample of 157 children under 5 admitted to the KATH for pneumonia from June to August 2016 was selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from their caregivers and secondary data from the patient record using a structured data extraction form. Continuous and categorical variables were described and chi-square test employed to determine the associated factors of pneumonia mortality. Multivariate logistics regression model was used to test for the strength of the association to unearth the risk factors of pneumonia mortality.

Results

The study found a prevalence of pneumonia of 18.40% with a mortality rate of 12.74%. Pneumonia mortality was found to be associated with maternal education (p<0.001), occupation (p=0.01), income (p=0.02), pneumonia severity (p<0.001) and number of rooms occupied by a household (p=0.01). In multivariate regression, severe pneumonia increased the odds of pneumonia mortality (OR=18.23, 95% CI= 4.37-76.10, p<0.001). However, maternal education showed reduced likelihood of pneumonia mortality (OR=0.59, 95% CI= 0.36-0.97, p=0.039). Conclusion Pneumonia places a high burden on the health of children under five years admitted to KATH. Health workers need to sensitize caregivers on the signs and symptoms of pneumonia to aid early detection and reporting which could reduce mortality.

Investigating epidemic prone diseases: knowledge and practices of clinical health staff in Ghana

BACKGROUND: Early detection and prompt reporting of epidemic prone diseases (EPD’s) has been cited as the pivot in the surveillance and control of outbreaks. The contributions by clinical staff towards early detections is highly relevant, however the level of knowledge and attitude towards reporting remains unknown. The study was therefore conducted to examine the knowledge and reporting standards of clinical staff towards outbreak investigations. METHODS: A cross sectional study design was conducted in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), tertiary hospital in Kumasi-Ghana between February and May 2013. Stratified, simple random sampling was used to select 111 participants and a structured questionnaire used as the instrument for data collection. RESULTS: The mean age was 31.1(±6.8) years. About 87% (n=95/111) indicated knowledge of EPD’s. More than half of these, 62.1% (n=59/95) had no idea of the definition and 30.5% (n=29/95) gave correct definition of EPD’s but had limited knowledge on the laboratory specimen required for its investigation. About 48% (n=46/95) of the respondents indicated that they would consult the nurse-in-charge of the ward instead of the public health official when an outbreak is suspected. CONCLUSION: The knowledge level of EPD’s was generally low but was found to be high with meningitis and poliomyelitis. The study has shown that the procedure for reporting EPD’s remains a challenge in the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. A protocol on outbreak investigation procedures would address the gaps identified in the study.